Nalimov Tablebases (3 4 5 6) (more Tablebases) Download
Nalimov Tablebases (3 4 5 6) (more tablebases) download
Nalimov tablebases are a computerized database that contains precalculated exhaustive analysis of chess endgame positions. They are named after Eugene Nalimov, who developed the algorithm and format for generating and storing them. Nalimov tablebases provide depth to mate information for any position with up to six pieces, including the two kings. They are typically used by a computer chess engine during play, or by a human or computer that is retrospectively analysing a game that has already been played. Nalimov tablebases have profoundly advanced the chess community's understanding of endgame theory, as they reveal the optimal moves and outcomes for many complex and previously unknown positions.
History and development
The idea of creating endgame tablebases dates back to the 1960s, when Richard Greenblatt proposed to store all possible four-piece endings in a magnetic drum. However, the first practical implementation of endgame tablebases was done by Ken Thompson in the 1980s, who generated all two- to five-piece endings using retrograde analysis, working backward from a checkmated position. Thompson's tablebases used a compact format that stored only one bit per position, indicating whether it was won or lost for the side to move. Thompson also introduced the concept of distance to mate, which measures how many moves it takes to achieve a checkmate with perfect play. Thompson's tablebases were widely distributed and used by many chess programs and researchers.
In the late 1990s, Eugene Nalimov improved on Thompson's work by developing a new algorithm and format for generating and storing endgame tablebases. Nalimov's algorithm used a modified version of retrograde analysis that also computed the distance to mate for each position, as well as the distance to conversion, which measures how many moves it takes to reach a simpler position with fewer pieces. Nalimov's format used a variable number of bits per position, depending on the number of legal moves and the distance to mate or conversion. Nalimov's tablebases also included information about draws by repetition, stalemate, and the 50-move rule. Nalimov's tablebases were first published for up to five pieces in late 1998, and later extended to six pieces with the help of Andrew Kadatch, Robert Hyatt, Kyrill Kryukov, Nelson Hernandez, and others. By 2005, all chess positions with up to six pieces had been solved.
Usage and benefits
Nalimov tablebases are widely used by computer chess engines during play, as they can provide instant and accurate answers for any endgame position with up to six pieces. This allows the engines to avoid costly mistakes and play optimally in the final phase of the game. Nalimov tablebases can also be used by humans or computers to analyse games that have already been played, and discover errors or improvements in the endgame play. Nalimov tablebases can be accessed online through various websites or applications, such as [Web Query for Nalimov Endgame Tablebases], [Shredder Endgame Database], or [Syzygy Endgame Explorer].
Nalimov tablebases have also contributed to the advancement of chess knowledge and theory, as they reveal the optimal moves and outcomes for many complex and previously unknown positions. Some positions that humans had analysed as draws were proven to be winnable; in some cases, the tablebase analysis could find a mate in more than five hundred moves, far beyond the horizon of humans and conventional computers. For example, one famous position that was solved by Nalimov tablebases is shown below:
8/8/1P6/8/8/6K1/7p/6k1 w - - 0 1
This position was first analysed by Alexey Troitsky in 1896, who claimed that it was a draw. However, Nalimov tablebases proved that it is a win for White in 549 moves with perfect play. The winning line starts with 1.Kf3 Kf1 2.b7 h1=Q+ 3.Kg3 Qxb7.
Download and installation
Nalimov tablebases are available for download from various sources, such as [Kyrill Kryukov's website], [Robert Hyatt's FTP server], or [Nelson Hernandez's BitTorrent tracker]. The total size of all Nalimov tablebases is about 1.2 terabytes, but users can choose to download only the subsets that they need. For example, the most common and useful subset is the 3-4-5 tablebases, which covers all positions with up to five pieces and occupies about 7 gigabytes of disk space.
To use Nalimov tablebases, users need to have a compatible chess engine and a graphical user interface (GUI) that support the Nalimov format. Some popular chess engines that support Nalimov tablebases are [Crafty], [Fritz], [Rybka], and [Stockfish]. Some popular GUIs that support Nalimov tablebases are [Arena], [ChessBase], [Chess Assistant], and [WinBoard]. Users need to configure their engine and GUI to point to the location of the Nalimov tablebases on their disk, and enable the use of tablebases during play or analysis. Users can also adjust the settings of their engine and GUI to control the display and output of the tablebase information.
Nalimov tablebases are not the only endgame tablebases that exist for chess. Other formats and algorithms have been developed by different researchers and programmers, such as Thompson, Gaviota, Scorpio, Syzygy, and Lomonosov. Each format has its own advantages and disadvantages, such as size, speed, accuracy, completeness, and compatibility. Some formats are compatible with each other, while others are not. Some formats cover more pieces than others, while others cover more positions than others. Some formats include more information than others, while others include less information than others.
One of the most recent and advanced endgame tablebase formats is Syzygy, developed by Ronald de Man in 2012. Syzygy tablebases use a different algorithm and format than Nalimov tablebases, and provide more information and faster access for any position with up to seven pieces. Syzygy tablebases also include information about draws by insufficient material, which Nalimov tablebases do not. Syzygy tablebases are supported by many modern chess engines, such as Stockfish, Komodo, Houdini, and Fire. Syzygy tablebases are available for download from various sources, such as [Syzygy-tables.info] or [Lichess.org]. The total size of all Syzygy tablebases is about 17 terabytes.
Another endgame tablebase project that is worth mentioning is Lomonosov, developed by a team of Russian researchers and programmers in 2012. Lomonosov tablebases use a supercomputer to generate and store all possible positions with up to seven pieces, including positions that are illegal or impossible in normal chess. Lomonosov tablebases provide depth to mate information for any position with up to seven pieces, as well as distance to conversion information for some positions with six pieces. Lomonosov tablebases are not available for download or offline use, but can be accessed online through a subscription service at [ChessOK.com].
Nalimov tablebases are a valuable resource for chess players and enthusiasts, as they provide instant and accurate answers for any endgame position with up to six pieces. They are also a remarkable achievement of computer science and mathematics, as they solve a complex and important problem in game theory. Nalimov tablebases have enhanced the understanding and appreciation of chess endgames, as they reveal the optimal moves and outcomes for many fascinating and challenging positions. Nalimov tablebases are widely available for download and use, but users need to have a compatible chess engine and GUI to access them. Nalimov tablebases are not the only endgame tablebases that exist for chess; other formats and algorithms have been developed by different researchers and programmers, such as Syzygy and Lomonosov. These formats offer more features and cover more pieces than Nalimov tablebases, but also require more disk space or online access.
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