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Icao Doc 8168 Vol 2


In 1989 the very first commercially available off the shelf instrument procedure design software (Wavionix) conforming to ICAO document 8168 Pans-Ops was programmed by Ian Whitworth. This software was first demonstrated at Bailbrook College in Bath, England in 1992 to a procedure design course. Prior to this all procedure design was done with pencil, tracing paper and a calculator. The software was programmed on a 386 IBM laptop computer and written in the "LISP" programming language.

In this article, we are spotlighting our bestsellers. All of them are available in the ICAO Store, where you can browse this collection of best-selling ICAO publications in print and digital formats, including Annex 10, Annex 14, Doc 7910, Doc 8168, and more. Take a peek below to learn more about these favorites.

A minimum sector altitude (MSA) represents the lowest altitude which may be used that provides a minimum clearance of 300 m (1000 ft) above all objects located in an area contained within a sector of a circle of 46 km (25 NM) radius centred on a significant point, the aerodrome reference point (ARP) or the heliport reference point (HRP). [Definition - ICAO Doc. 8168, Vol. II - PANS-OPS] 781b155fdc


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